It has long been assumed that dry food and ingredients, by virtue of their low water activity (aw), carry relatively little risk with regards to foodborne pathogens. It has become clear, however, that whilst pathogens are unlikely to grow in dry products, if present they can often survive. Foods with a low aw tend to have a long shelf life because spoilage organisms grow slowly or are prevented from growing. Pathogens cannot grow in low aw products; however, if they are present in high numbers, or the infective dose is low, then the risk to the consumer still remains. If low aw ingredients are rehydrated during manufacture or preparation, growth can occur, thus increasing the risk to consumers. Recent outbreaks have raised concerns regarding the safety of low moisture foods. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1, a recent USA outbreak in dry ingredients originated in organic sprouted chia powder. A total of 31 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Newport (20 people), Salmonella Hartford (seven people), or Salmonella Oranienburg (four people) were reported from 16 states. Another outbreak in June 2013 originated in tahini sesame paste and...